SubjectsSubjects(version: 912)
Course, academic year 2022/2023
Reaction Mechanisms in Food Chemistry - D323001
Title: Reakční mechanismy v chemii potravin
Guaranteed by: Department of Food Analysis and Nutrition (323)
Faculty: Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology
Actual: from 2012
Semester: both
Points: 0
E-Credits: 0
Examination process:
Hours per week, examination: 0/0, other [HT]
Capacity: winter:unknown / unknown (unknown)
summer:unknown / unknown (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
For type:  
Note: course is intended for doctoral students only
can be fulfilled in the future
you can enroll for the course in winter and in summer semester
Guarantor: Cejpek Karel doc. Dr. Ing.
Doležal Marek doc. Dr. Ing.
Annotation -
Last update: Cejpek Karel doc. Dr. Ing. (28.03.2014)
The aim of this course is to give an insight on the chemical and biochemical reactions of nutrients and other important components that lead to changes in the nutritional, physiological and toxicological quality of food products and raw materials. The graduates will receive information about the chemical and physical parameters that determine in which direction and how far the reactions take place, and how quick they are. The knowledge of reaction mechanisms is a prerequisite for effective management of major reactions and processes in food practice.
Aim of the course -
Last update: Cejpek Karel doc. Dr. Ing. (28.03.2014)

Students will be able to

  • describe the reaction mechanisms for important reactions of nutrients and other food constituents.
  • employ information about the chemical and physical variables that will determine in which direction and how far the reactions take place, and how quickly they are carried out.
  • design an effective control over the processes important in food practice.

Literature -
Last update: Cejpek Karel doc. Dr. Ing. (28.03.2014)

R: Davídek J., Velíšek J., Pokorný J.: Chemical Changes during Food Processing (Developments in Food Science 21), Elsevier, Amsterdam-Oxford-New York-Tokyo, 1990.

R: McMurry J.: Organická chemie, VUT Brno, VŠCHT Praha, 2007.

R: Velíšek J., Hajšlová J.: Chemie potravin I, 3. vydání, OSSIS, Tábor, 2009.


A: Carey F. A.: Organic chemistry, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003.

A: Červinka O. a kol.: Mechanismy organických reakcí, SNTL/Alfa, Praha, 1981.

A: Upadhay S. K.: Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Dynamics, Springer/Anamaya Publishers, New York /New Delhi, 2006.

A: Velíšek J.: The Chemistry of Food, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.

A: Velíšek J., Cejpek K.: Biosynthesis of Food Components, OSSIS Tábor, 2008.

A: Wong D. W. S.: Mechanism and Theory in Food Chemistry, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1989.

Learning resources -
Last update: Cejpek Karel doc. Dr. Ing. (28.03.2014)

Syllabus -
Last update: Cejpek Karel doc. Dr. Ing. (28.03.2014)

1. Reactions of organic compounds: reaction mechanism, molecularity and reaction order. Chemical bond and factors affecting covalent bond character. Levels of the expression of organic compounds’ structures. Classification according to the reaction mechanism.

2. Reactions of lipids: reactions of homolipids, heterolipids and steroids (esterification, hydrolysis, thermal decomposition). Reactions of carboxyl groups of fatty acids. Reactions on hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids. Formation of free radicals, radical reactions without the presence of oxygen. Thickening of fats. The mechanisms of lipid oxidation, formation of hydroperoxides . Oxidation with singlet oxygen and other agents. Oxidation in biological systems. Inhibitors of oxidation. Decomposition of fatty acids’ hydroperoxides and formation of secondary oxidation products. Nutritional, sensory and hygienic aspects.

3. Reactions of carbohydrates: reactions of carbonyl and semi-acetal hydroxyl groups. Reactions with nucleophiles; hydrates of carbonyl compounds. Cyclic structures of carbohydrates , conformation and mutarotation . Formation and hydrolysis of glycosides, enolization and dehydration of carbohydrates. Formation and reactions of furan and pyran derivatives . Isomerization , rearrangement , oxidation-reduction reaction and fragmentation of carbohydrates. Aldolisation and other reactions of carbohydrate fragmentation products. Reactions of sugar derivatives.

4. The Maillard reaction: formation of glycosylamines and aminodeoxy sugars, decomposition of aminodeoxy sugars. Strecker degradation of amino acids. Reactions leading to the formation of melanoidins and flavour substances. Reaction products with antioxidant properties. Nutritional and hygienic aspects of the reactions of carbohydrates. Factors affecting the reaction rates. Inhibition of non-enzymatic browning reactions.

5. Reactions of proteins: Oxidation of free amino acids and peptide chains. Isomerization, formation of dehydroproteins, deamidation, desulfurization and hydrolysis of proteins. Elimination reactions of the amino acids. Reaction of amino acids and proteins with other food constituents.

6. Reactions of vitamins: reactions caused by the use of heat, oxygen, metal ions, acidic and basic environment, and UV/Vis under the conditions of processing and storage of foods. Reactions of vitamins with other food components.

Registration requirements -
Last update: Cejpek Karel doc. Dr. Ing. (28.03.2014)

Food Chemistry, Organic Chemistry I

Coursework assessment
Form Significance
Regular attendance 50
Defense of an individual project 20
Examination test 30