Last update: KNOBLOCL (17.01.2012)
1. History of Microbiology.
2. Microorganisms in nature and industry. Development of microbiology as a scientific
discipline. Nomenclature and taxonomy of microorganisms.
3. Physiological characteristics of microorganisms. Organization and structure of
microorganisms. Functions and cytology of basic microbial structures.
4. Prokaryotic organisms: Bacteria (morphology, cytology, reproduction,spores forming).
5. Bacteria important for food industry and biotechnology, their position in classification
system of microorganisms.
6. Eukaryotic microorganisms:Yeasts (morphology, cytology, vegetative reproduction, sexual reproduction). Chemical composition of yeast cell mass.
7. Classsification of individual yeasts groups from the food industry and biotechnology point of view. Taxonomical position of these strains.
8. Filamentous fungi (molds): morphology and cytology. Vegetative and sexual reproduction. Some representatives of filamentous fungi used in food industry and biotechnology. Taxonomy of these strains.
9 .Viruses. Structure of viruses. Classification of viruses (bacterial, plant, animal). Life cycle of bacteriophage and DNA animal viruses.
10.Metabolic strategies of microorganisms and their technological consequences.
11. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria: their anabolic and katabolic processes.
12.Effects of outer factors (temperature, pH, water activity) on growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Nutrition: sources of individual nutrients, their transport into the microbial cell.
13. Bacterial growth. Kinetics of bacterial reproduction. Phases of microbial growth. Growth of bacterial cultures: batch cultures, continuous cultures, synchronous cultures.
14.Microbial genetics: molecular basis of heritage. Transfer of genetic information. Mutations, recombination, extrachromosomal genetic structures (plasmids and mitochondria).